## What is Turing machine language? - turing-machines

So I tried searching for the precise definition of language, but all articles assume that the definition is obvious to everyone. Apparently, to me it isn't.
What is the definition of Turing machine language?

When you run a TM, you give it as input a string. The TM will then either accept the string, reject the string, or loop on the machine. The language of a TM is defined as the set of all the strings it accepts.
Not every language is the language of a Turing machine - that's one of the landmark results of theoretical computer science. The languages that are languages of Turing machines have lots of names - they're the Turing-recognizable languages, the semi-decidable languages, and the recursively enumerable languages. You'll see all these terms used depending on the context.

Alan turing wrote a paper describing an abstract conceptual implementation of a discrete automata (something that runs a sequence of commands over a number of discrete time blocks) specifically for use in computation. The Turing abstract model is that of a simple tape and a head that can read and write to that tape. You can issue commands to move the head back and forth (these commands can be also wrote and read from the same tape).
This is the 'Turing Machine'.
This simple abstract model (whether you think of it in the terms of 'tapes' and 'heads') turns out to be very powerful as functionality of modern computers can be described/modeled by this abstract representation.
On a side node, for fun and experiment some folks have created literal implementations close to the tape & head original description of the 'Turing machine' out of things as crazy like legos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cYw2ewoO6c4 The interesting concept is that this insanely simple creation can do everything the best supercomputers can achieve (but might take a little more time and legos)

## Related

### What is Turing Complete?

What does the expression "Turing Complete" mean? Can you give a simple explanation, without going into too many theoretical details?

Here's the briefest explanation: A Turing Complete system means a system in which a program can be written that will find an answer (although with no guarantees regarding runtime or memory). So, if somebody says "my new thing is Turing Complete" that means in principle (although often not in practice) it could be used to solve any computation problem. Sometime's it's a joke... a guy wrote a Turing Machine simulator in vi, so it's possible to say that vi is the only computational engine ever needed in the world.

Here is the simplest explanation Alan Turing created a machine that can take a program and run that program and show some result. But then he had to create different machines for different programs. So he created "Universal Turing Machine" that can take ANY program and run it. Programming languages are similar to those machines (although virtual). They take programs and run them. Now, a programing language is called "Turing complete", if that it can run any program(irrespective of the language) that a Turing machine can run given enough time and memory. For example: Let's say there is a program that takes 10 numbers and adds them. Turing machine can easily run this program. But now imagine for some reason your programming language can't do the same addition then it's Turing machine incomplete. On the other hand, if it can run any program like the universal turing machine can run, then it's Turing complete. Most modern programming languages like Java, JavaScript, Perl etc are all turing complete because they all implement all the features required to run programs like addition, multiplication, if-else condition, return statements, ways to store/retrieve/erase data and so on. Update: You can learn more on my blog post: "JavaScript Is Turing Complete" — Explained

From wikipedia: Turing completeness, named after Alan Turing, is significant in that every plausible design for a computing device so far advanced can be emulated by a universal Turing machine — an observation that has become known as the Church-Turing thesis. Thus, a machine that can act as a universal Turing machine can, in principle, perform any calculation that any other programmable computer is capable of. However, this has nothing to do with the effort required to write a program for the machine, the time it may take for the machine to perform the calculation, or any abilities the machine may possess that are unrelated to computation. While truly Turing-complete machines are very likely physically impossible, as they require unlimited storage, Turing completeness is often loosely attributed to physical machines or programming languages that would be universal if they had unlimited storage. All modern computers are Turing-complete in this sense. I don't know how you can be more non-technical than that except by saying "turing complete means 'able to answer computable problem given enough time and space'".

Informal Definition A Turing complete language is one that can perform any computation. The Church-Turing Thesis states that any performable computation can be done by a Turing machine. A Turing machine is a machine with infinite random access memory and a finite 'program' that dictates when it should read, write, and move across that memory, when it should terminate with a certain result, and what it should do next. The input to a Turing machine is put in its memory before it starts. Things that can make a language NOT Turing complete A Turing machine can make decisions based on what it sees in memory - The 'language' that only supports +, -, *, and / on integers is not Turing complete because it can't make a choice based on its input, but a Turing machine can. A Turing machine can run forever - If we took Java, Javascript, or Python and removed the ability to do any sort of loop, GOTO, or function call, it wouldn't be Turing complete because it can't perform an arbitrary computation that never finishes. Coq is a theorem prover that can't express programs that don't terminate, so it's not Turing complete. A Turing machine can use infinite memory - A language that was exactly like Java but would terminate once it used more than 4 Gigabytes of memory wouldn't be Turing complete, because a Turing machine can use infinite memory. This is why we can't actually build a Turing machine, but Java is still a Turing complete language because the Java language has no restriction preventing it from using infinite memory. This is one reason regular expressions aren't Turing complete. A Turing machine has random access memory - A language that only lets you work with memory through push and pop operations to a stack wouldn't be Turing complete. If I have a 'language' that reads a string once and can only use memory by pushing and popping from a stack, it can tell me whether every ( in the string has its own ) later on by pushing when it sees ( and popping when it sees ). However, it can't tell me if every ( has its own ) later on and every [ has its own ] later on (note that ([)] meets this criteria but ([]] does not). A Turing machine can use its random access memory to track ()'s and []'s separately, but this language with only a stack cannot. A Turing machine can simulate any other Turing machine - A Turing machine, when given an appropriate 'program', can take another Turing machine's 'program' and simulate it on arbitrary input. If you had a language that was forbidden from implementing a Python interpreter, it wouldn't be Turing complete. Examples of Turing complete languages If your language has infinite random access memory, conditional execution, and some form of repeated execution, it's probably Turing complete. There are more exotic systems that can still achieve everything a Turing machine can, which makes them Turing complete too: Untyped lambda calculus Conway's game of life C++ Templates Prolog

Fundamentally, Turing-completeness is one concise requirement, unbounded recursion. Not even bounded by memory. I thought of this independently, but here is some discussion of the assertion. My definition of LSP provides more context. The other answers here don't directly define the fundamental essence of Turing-completeness.

Turing Complete means that it is at least as powerful as a Turing Machine. This means anything that can be computed by a Turing Machine can be computed by a Turing Complete system. No one has yet found a system more powerful than a Turing Machine. So, for the time being, saying a system is Turing Complete is the same as saying the system is as powerful as any known computing system (see Church-Turing Thesis).

In the simplest terms, a Turing-complete system can solve any possible computational problem. One of the key requirements is the scratchpad size be unbounded and that is possible to rewind to access prior writes to the scratchpad. Thus in practice no system is Turing-complete. Rather some systems approximate Turing-completeness by modeling unbounded memory and performing any possible computation that can fit within the system's memory.

I think the importance of the concept "Turing Complete" is in the the ability to identify a computing machine (not necessarily a mechanical/electrical "computer") that can have its processes be deconstructed into "simple" instructions, composed of simpler and simpler instructions, that a Universal machine could interpret and then execute. I highly recommend The Annotated Turing #Mark i think what you are explaining is a mix between the description of the Universal Turing Machine and Turing Complete. Something that is Turing Complete, in a practical sense, would be a machine/process/computation able to be written and represented as a program, to be executed by a Universal Machine (a desktop computer). Though it doesn't take consideration for time or storage, as mentioned by others.

What i understand in simple words: Turing Complete : A programming language / program that can do computation, is Turing complete. For example : Can you add two numbers using Just HTML. (Ans is 'No', you have to use javascript to perform addition.), Hence HTML is not Turing Complete. Languages like Java , C++, Python, Javascript, Solidity for Ethereum etc are Turing Complete because you can do computation like adding two numbers using this languages. Hope this helps.

As Waylon Flinn said: Turing Complete means that it is at least as powerful as a Turing Machine. I believe this is incorrect, a system is Turing complete if it's exactly as powerful as the Turing Machine, i.e. every computation done by the machine can be done by the system, but also every computation done by the system can be done by the Turing machine.

In practical language terms familiar to most programmers, the usual way to detect Turing completeness is if the language allows or allows the simulation of nested unbounded while statements (as opposed to Pascal-style for statements, with fixed upper bounds).

Can a relational database input latitudes and longitudes of places and roads, and compute the shortest path between them - no. This is one problem that shows SQL is not Turing complete. But C++ can do it, and can do any problem. Thus it is.

### Halting in non-Turing-complete languages

The halting problem cannot be solved for Turing complete languages and it can be solved trivially for some non-TC languages like regexes where it always halts. I was wondering if there are any languages that has both the ability to halt and not halt but admits an algorithm that can determine whether it halts.

Yes. One important class of this kind are primitive recursive functions. This class includes all of the basic things you expect to be able to do with numbers (addition, multiplication, etc.), as well as some complex classes like #adrian has mentioned (regular expressions/finite automata, context-free grammars/pushdown automata). There do, however, exist functions that are not primitive recursive, such as the Ackermann function. It's actually pretty easy to understand primitive recursive functions. They're the functions that you could get in a programming language that had no true recursion (so a function f cannot call itself, whether directly or by calling another function g that then calls f, etc.) and has no while-loops, instead having bounded for-loops. A bounded for-loop is one like "for i from 1 to r" where r is a variable that has already been computed earlier in the program; also, i cannot be modified within the for-loop. The point of such a programming language is that every program halts. Most programs we write are actually primitive recursive (I mean, can be translated into such a language).

The halting problem does not act on languages. Rather, it acts on machines (i.e., programs): it asks whether a given program halts on a given input. Perhaps you meant to ask whether it can be solved for other models of computation (like regular expressions, which you mention, but also like push-down automata). Halting can, in general, be detected in models with finite resources (like regular expressions or, equivalently, finite automata, which have a fixed number of states and no external storage). This is easily accomplished by enumerating all possible configurations and checking whether the machine enters the same configuration twice (indicating an infinite loop); with finite resources, we can put an upper bound on the amount of time before we must see a repeated configuration if the machine does not halt. Usually, models with infinite resources (unbounded TMs and PDAs, for instance), cannot be halt-checked, but it would be best to investigate the models and their open problems individually. (Sorry for all the Wikipedia links, but it actually is a very good resource for this kind of question.)

The short answer is yes, and such languages can even be extremely useful. There was a discussion about it a few months ago on LtU: http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/node/2846

### What are the primitive Forth operators?

I'm interested in implementing a Forth system, just so I can get some experience building a simple VM and runtime. When starting in Forth, one typically learns about the stack and its operators (DROP, DUP, SWAP, etc.) first, so it's natural to think of these as being among the primitive operators. But they're not. Each of them can be broken down into operators that directly manipulate memory and the stack pointers. Later one learns about store (!) and fetch (#) which can be used to implement DUP, SWAP, and so forth (ha!). So what are the primitive operators? Which ones must be implemented directly in the runtime environment from which all others can be built? I'm not interested in high-performance; I want something that I (and others) can learn from. Operator optimization can come later. (Yes, I'm aware that I can start with a Turing machine and go from there. That's a bit extreme.) Edit: What I'm aiming for is akin to bootstrapping an operating system or a new compiler. What do I need do implement, at minimum, so that I can construct the rest of the system out of those primitive building blocks? I won't implement this on bare hardware; as an educational exercise, I'd write my own minimal VM.

This thread covers your exact question. Here is a soup-to-nuts implementation with complete documentation. I wrote a subroutine threaded Forth targeting 68K when I was in college. I defined the runtime environment and dictionary format, then wrote some C code that boot strapped a Macintosh application that loaded a default dictionary, populated some I/O vectors and got the code running. Then I took the Leo Brodie book Starting Forth and started implementing the basic dictionary in 68K assembly language. I started with arithmetic/logic words, then did control structures then word definition/manipulation words. My understanding is that at a minimum you need #, !, +, -, * and /. The rest can be implemented in terms of those, but that's like trying to write an entire graphics library based on SetPixel and GetPixel: it will work, but yikes, why? I enjoyed the process as there were some really interesting puzzles, like getting DOES> exactly right (and once I had a solid DOES> implementation, I was creating closures that turned into tiny, tiny amounts of code).

A long time ago, I had a book called "Threaded Interpretive Languages", published I think by Byte, that discussed how to implement a Forth-like language (I don't think they ever called it Forth) in Z80 assembly. You may not have a Z80 handy, or want one, but the book might be instructive.

This post at comp.lang.forth lists a few "minimal Forths". http://groups.google.com/group/comp.lang.forth/msg/10872cb68edcb526 Why do I know this? My brother, Mikael, wrote #3 and he also wrote a paper about making a "minimal Forth" (in Swedish, though). If I remember correctly he wanted to get a minimal set of operators that could be built in silicon.

I'm still not convinced the question is well-formed. For example, Plinth's instructions can be reduced; after all, * and / can be implemented in terms of + and -, but then '+' can be implemented in terms of a successor function (see the Peano axioms.) Which puts you into the neighborhood of a Turing machine. How do you know where to stop?

You might also want to take a look at Hans Bezemer's 4tH compiler.

Which Forth implementation are you using that doesn't provide this information in the documentation? Given the nature of Forth, it might be implementation-dependent. There's a standard set of words in the dictionary, but whether they got there by assembly/C/whatever or by Forth shouldn't matter, since Forth is by definition a self-extensible language.

Contrary to what you say, generally DROP SWAP etc are considered basic Forth operations. The reason is that if you implement them using memory operations like you suggest, the overall system becomes more, not less complicated. Also there is no clear distinction in Forth between what is basic and what not. In the 80's a dictionary search would be basic, and coded in assembler for speed, while a modern linux hosted can afford to code that in so called high level. Also Forthers tend to routinely recode assembler words in high level, and high level words in assembler. I'm the author of ciforth and yourforth. It is possible to define <= as "> not" as I did in ciforth . But in yourforth I decided that having all of < <= > >= as similar, uniformly looking, small assembler routines was effectively simpler. That is a judgement call, and a matter of taste, certainly not a matter of principle. In the context I interpret the question as: "What is a reasonable size for the number of primitive operations to arrive at a reasonable powerful Forth with a reasonable speed?" Clearly you are not interested in clever tricks to get rid of one assembler word at the expense of tremendous overhead as found in some of the threads discussing this subject. Now you can look at a number of small Forth's like jonesforth yourforth eforth and conclude that mostly one arrives at around 50 to 100 primitives. Those Forth's are defined in assembler. If you want to define your primitives in c, python or Java , the situation is again different. Now for e.g. the above dictionary search you have a choice between c and Forth. Considerations that have nothing to do with language design come into play. You may be a prolific c-programmer, or you may insist on coding it in Forth because it is a learning project.

### natural numbers and the difference between recognizable and decidable?

I found the following explanation from Math exchange A language is Recognizable iff there is a Turing Machine which will halt and accept only the strings in that language and for strings not in the language, the TM either rejects, or does not halt at all. Note: there is no requirement that the Turing Machine should halt for strings not in the language. A language is Decidable iff there is a Turing Machine which will accept strings in the language and reject strings not in the language." I really don't see the difference in two. what's the difference between a Turing machine that ONLY accepts string in a languages vs a Turing machine that accepts strings in a language? does that mean any Turing Machine can accept anything?

I really don't see the difference in two. The difference is that for a Decidable language you can build a compiler that can always distinguish between valid and invalid "utterances". By contrast, if the language is only Recognizable, then there are invalid "utterances" that will cause a compiler to go into an infinite loop. Note that by expressing this in terms of Turing machines, they are talking about what is theoretically possible; i.e. any theoretically possible compiler for the language, not just a specific one. And the language "iff there is a Turing Machine ..." means that it is possible to formulate such a Turning Machine. It is not talking about all Turing Machines. A Turing Machine designed to (say) tell you if a number is odd obviously won't act as a language recognizer. (If you don't understand why that is obviously so, you need to do some more background reading on the subject. I suggest you start with Wikipedia.)

The difference is that the Decider (TM that decides) is ALWAYS halts on any input (whether accepts or rejects) while the Recognizer could be loop forever besides halt. When it loops forever, recognizer can decides only when after some 'forever' times. That is why we call it recognizer rather than decider, since it sometimes just can't decide.

### Is a Turing machine a real device or an imaginary concept?

When I am studying about Turing machines and PDAs, I was thinking that the first computing device was the Turing machine. Hence, I thought that there existed a practical machine called the Turing machine and its states could be represented by some special devices (say like flip-flops) and it could accept magnetic tapes as inputs. Hence I asked how input strings are represented in magnetic tapes, but by the answer and by the details given in my book, I came to know that a Turing machine is somewhat hypothetical. My question is, how would a Turing machine be implemented practically? For example, how it is used to check spelling errors in our current processors. Are Turing machines outdated? Or are they still being used?

Turing machines aren't used in practice for several reasons. For starters, it's impossible to build one, since you'd need infinite resources to construct the infinite tape. Moreover, Turing machines are inherently slower than other models of computation because of the sequential nature of their data access. Turing machines cannot, for example, jump into the middle of an array without first walking across all the elements of the array that it wants to skip. On top of that, Turing machines are extremely difficult to design. Try writing a Turing machine to sort a list of 32-bit integers, for example. (Actually, please don't. It's really hard!) This then begs the question... why study Turing machines at all? Fortunately, there are a huge number of reasons to do this: To reason about the limits of what could possibly be computed. Because Turing machines are capable of simulating any computer on planet earth (or, according to the Church-Turing thesis, any physically realizable computing device), if we can show the limits of what Turing machines can compute, we can demonstrate the limits of what could ever hope to be accomplished on an actual computer. To formalize the definition of an algorithm. Why is binary search an algorithm while the statement "guess the answer" is not? In order to answer this question, we have to have a formal model of what a computer is and what an algorithm means. Having the Turing machine as a model of computation allows us to rigorously define what an algorithm is. No one actually ever wants to translate algorithms into the format, but the ability to do so gives the field of algorithms and computability theory a firm mathematical grounding. To formalize definitions of deterministic and nondeterministic algorithms. Probably the biggest open question in computer science right now is whether P = NP. This question only makes sense if you have a formal definition for P and NP, and these in turn require definitions if deterministic and nndeterministic computation (though technically they could be defined using second-order logic). Having the Turing machine then allows us to talk about important problems in NP, along with giving us a way to find NP-complete problems. For example, the proof that SAT is NP-complete uses the fact that SAT can be used to encode a Turing machine and it's execution on an input. Hope this helps!

It is a conceptual device that is not realizable (due to the requirement of infinite tape). Some people have built physical realizations of a Turing machine, but it is not a true Turing machine due to physical limitations. Here's a video of one: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E3keLeMwfHY

Turing Machine are not exactly physical machines, instead they are basically conceptual machine. Turing concept is hypothesis and this is very difficult to implement in real world since we require infinite tapes for small and easy solution too.

It's a theoretical machine, the following paragraph from Wikipedia A Turing machine is a theoretical device that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. Despite its simplicity, a Turing machine can be adapted to simulate the logic of any computer algorithm, and is particularly useful in explaining the functions of a CPU inside a computer. This machine along with other machines like non-deterministic machine (doesn't exist in real) are very useful in calculating complexity and prove that one algorithm is harder than another or one algorithm is not solvable...etc